Listen to this morning’s Scripture song – SSMicah 6:8
Read the “0307 Evening and Morning” devotion for today, by the late Charles Haddon Spurgeon.
And the officers shall speak further unto the people, and they shall say, What man is there that is fearful and fainthearted? let him go and return unto his house, lest his brethren’s heart faint as well as his heart. (Deuteronomy 20:8)
As we continue to read about God’s instruction and reminders for His people. We come across these guidelines for battle. God actually says that there are reasons to send someone home from battle and not allow them to fight. One of these disqualifying reasons is fear.
Simple thought today is this, are you fearful and fainthearted? Even further than that, are you influencing others to be the same? When the spies went into the promise land there was a report of blessing and bounty, but there was also and report of doubt and fear. The fear spread throughout the people like disease and stole their hearts, bringing them to their knees in defeat. Only they had never fought the physical battle. The devil can keep you from ever fighting in the battle, if he can keep you defeated in your fear.
We see another passage of scripture later on in Judges where the Israelites follow this rule mentioned here in Deuteronomy. Gideon is commanded to send those who were fearful of the battle, home. As a result they receive the victory. We learn here that we must cast out all fear and replace it with faith in a God. He has never let us down, nor given us any reason to doubt. Remember, “For God hath not given us the spirit of; but of power, and of love, and of a sound mind” 2 Tim. 1:7.
In conclusion, either remove fear or God will remove you from the battle. In the end, if you have fear you do more damage than good. Don’t let fear keep you and others from experiencing victory.
Posted in Devotions by Justin Mears with 1 comment.
Read the “0306 Evening and Morning” devotion for today, by the late Charles Haddon Spurgeon.
“And if thy brother, an Hebrew man, or an Hebrew woman, be sold unto thee, and serve thee six years; then in the seventh year thou shalt let him go free from thee. And when thou sendest him out free from thee, thou shalt not let him go away empty: Thou shalt furnish him liberally out of thy flock, and out of thy floor, and out of thy winepress: of that wherewith the LORD thy God hath blessed thee thou shalt give unto him. And thou shalt remember that thou wast a bondman in the land of Egypt, and the LORD thy God redeemed thee: therefore I command thee this thing to day.” (Deuteronomy 15:12-15)
Good morning. We’re having a wonderful time down here in Texas. We have made new friends, and renewed old friendships. But we still think about our other friends back home in New Jersey. We will be leaving in two weeks to start our journey back. We will always remember Florida, Texas, and our home: New Jersey. In our passage today, God is telling the Hebrews, when after six years, to release their Hebrew servants in the seventh year. They need to remember that they were bondmen in the land of Egypt, and the LORD freed them and they left Egypt with everything they needed. The Hebrew masters should not send their Hebrew servants away empty, but should furnish them liberally from what God had blessed them with. Did they disagree with that? They needed to remember that they were in bondage at one time in Egypt, till the LORD redeemed them. We, as Christians, were once in bondage: in bondage to sin before the LORD redeemed us. God showed us mercy and grace as He paid the price of our redemption.
“But God commendeth his love toward us, in that, while we were yet sinners, Christ died for us.” (Romans 5:8)
Should we not also show grace and mercy to other Christians? Remember where you came from.
“A new commandment I give unto you, That ye love one another; as I have loved you, that ye also love one another. By this shall all men know that ye are my disciples, if ye have love one to another.” (John13:34-35)
1) Remember those in bondage to sin.
“Remember them that are in bonds, as bound with them; and them which suffer adversity, as being yourselves also in the body.” (Hebrews 13:3)
2) Remember those we follow.
“Remember them which have the rule over you, who have spoken unto you the word of God: whose faith follow, considering the end of their conversation.” (Hebrews 13:7)
3) Remember to help the lost and fallen.
“But, beloved, remember ye the words which were spoken before of the apostles of our Lord Jesus Christ; How that they told you there should be mockers in the last time, who should walk after their own ungodly lusts. These be they who separate themselves, sensual, having not the Spirit. But ye, beloved, building up yourselves on your most holy faith, praying in the Holy Ghost, Keep yourselves in the love of God, looking for the mercy of our Lord Jesus Christ unto eternal life. And of some have compassion, making a difference: And others save with fear, pulling them out of the fire; hating even the garment spotted by the flesh.” (Jude 1:17-23)
One more item to remember: it’s hard to look down your nose unless you are looking in a mirror. Remember.
Posted in Devotions by Pastor Ted Stahl with 1 comment.
Listen to this morning’s Scripture song – SSIsaiah 40:31
Read the “0305 Evening and Morning” devotion for today, by the late Charles Haddon Spurgeon.
“A Psalm of David. The LORD is my shepherd; I shall not want.” (Psalm 23:1)
To break down this first verse of Psalm 23, we look at the Lord being OUR shepherd! As Christians, we must be ecstatic that the Lord is our shepherd and that He made a way for Him to be our shepherd. He came here as a baby just like you and I. Lived a sinless life. Helping others on this planet. But He came for one reason and one reason only: to die for us. It was nothing we could do to pay for our sins, but by His blood being shed. When we think about this, we think about our own sins. We think about how we fail Him everyday. No matter how hard we try, we are never going to be perfect. It is our sinful nature. This flesh only wants wicked and carnal things in life. The sins we commit everyday is the reason He came and died on the cross. We were on His mind when He was up on the cross. He loved us so much that He would die for us! But it doesn’t end there. He has risen! He rose of the third day and is alive in heaven! the shepherd was slain and rose up again! How powerful! He left here to go prepare a place for us in Heaven, wait for the day we unite with Him. The great thing about it all is the the gift of salvation is that He made it free! He made it so simple and easy! What a God! We don’t deserve it! We don’t deserve to have a shepherd like we do. A shepherd that would do anything for his sheep, knowing that they would fail his countless times. All we must do to inherit eternal life it to ask Him. He will then give it to us. He’s just such a great God! The second part of this verse reads …I shall not want. When we trust Jesus Christ as our Savior, we will need nothing else in this life! This world is full of broken heart and emptiness, saying they have the answer to all your problems when in reality they don’t. They themselves have problems and can’t even get them fixed. They will never get fixed unless they have Jesus Christ as their shepherd in their life. They have no guidance. The try to go day by day living life with no direction, leader, or purpose. This a sad reality we live in, but it is what we see in the world on a daily basis. When we have Jesus Christ as the shepherd leading us through life, what more would we need? He blesses us everyday! He gave us His Word, telling us how to go about life. He gave us prayer and the opportunity to come into His presence. He allows us to walk with Him daily. He hears us when we cry. He is the answer to everything. What more could you need? Anytime we need Him, He is there!
Maybe today you need to remember what the shepherd provides. Maybe someone you know needs to know the shepherd. Maybe you need to realize all you need in life is Jesus Christ. Jesus Christ is the greatest thing to ever happen to us! We need to remember this when going through life and its struggles. We must also show others who don’t know Christ as the shepherd the greatness of God and His blessings that come with it.
Posted in Devotions by Michael Garner with 4 comments.
Listen to this morning’s Scripture song – Psalm 121
Read the “0304 Evening and Morning” devotion for today, by the late Charles Haddon Spurgeon.
“Behold, I set before you this day a blessing and a curse; A blessing, if ye obey the commandments of the LORD your God, which I command you this day: And a curse, if ye will not obey the commandments of the LORD your God, but turn aside out of the way which I command you this day, to go after other gods, which ye have not known.” – (Deuteronomy 11:26-28)
The choice that God “set before” the people of Israel 4000 years ago is the same choice that he places before His people today. If we love Him and live for Him, His hand of blessing will be upon our lives and families, and we will also be fruitful and productive in our ministry for Him. However, if the world, with all of its attractions, lures us out of the will of God and causes us to live for ourselves, then we will lose God’s blessings of provision and protection.
It is very frightening to me the number of casualties that there are among the ranks of Christians. It scares me because I know that it is only by the grace of God that I haven’t fallen myself. But I believe that our chances of surviving this wicked world with our faith intact will greatly increase if we heed the commandment that God gave the people in the verses prior to v. 26:
“Therefore shall ye lay up these my words in your heart and in your soul, and bind them for a sign upon your hand, that they may be as frontlets between your eyes. And ye shall teach them your children, speaking of them when thou sittest in thine house, and when thou walkest by the way, when thou liest down, and when thou risest up. And thou shalt write them upon the door posts of thine house, and upon thy gates: That your days may be multiplied, and the days of your children, in the land which the LORD sware unto your fathers to give them, as the days of heaven upon the earth.” – (Deuteronomy 11:18-21)
“For if ye shall diligently keep all these commandments which I command you, to do them, to love the LORD your God, to walk in all his ways, and to cleave unto him; Then will the LORD drive out all these nations from before you, and ye shall possess greater nations and mightier than yourselves. Every place whereon the soles of your feet shall tread shall be yours: from the wilderness and Lebanon, from the river, the river Euphrates, even unto the uttermost sea shall your coast be. There shall no man be able to stand before you: for the LORD your God shall lay the fear of you and the dread of you upon all the land that ye shall tread upon, as he hath said unto you.” – (Deuteronomy 11:22-25)
The Bible teaches very plainly that our faith in God will grow proportionately to amount of time we spend in the Word of God (“So then faith cometh by hearing, and hearing by the word of God.” – Romans 10:17 ); not merely reading the Word, but also meditating on it, memorizing it, and applying it to our lives. If we spend time daily in the Word, our faith in God will increase, and if our faith increases, we will then have a desire in our hearts to obey Him; and if we are obedient to Him, He then can bless our lives.
Are you struggling with your faith? Get back into your Bible, and get back into the church services. Increasing your time in the Word, will increase your faith, which will increase your obedience, which will increase your blessing. The choice is yours.
Posted in Thoughts from Deuteronomy by Phil Erickson with 4 comments.
Listen to this morning’s Scripture song – SSPsalm 119:105
Read the “0303 Evening and Morning” devotion for today, by the late Charles Haddon Spurgeon.
“And thou shalt love the LORD thy God with all thine heart, and with all thy soul, and with all thy might.” (Deuteronomy 6:5)
“Then beware lest thou forget the LORD, which brought thee forth out of the land of Egypt, from the house of bondage.” (Deuteronomy 6:12)
“And when thy son asketh thee in time to come, saying What mean the testimonies, and the statutes, and the judgements, which the LORD our God hath commanded you? Then thou shalt say unto thy son, We were Pharaoh’s bondmen in Egypt; and the LORD brought us out of Egypt with a mighty hand:” (Deuteronomy 6:20 – 21)
I once heard one of my teachers say “The Christian life isn’t hard, life is hard.” She then explained what she meant. She was saying, here on Earth we have problems. They’re hard, they hurt, and they’re not pleasant to go through. But at the end of the day, the struggles don’t affect how good God is, and how good He is to us. Oftentimes, we lose sight of his sweet and tender mercies, and the new blessings he has in each day. We forget who He is to us. I don’t know about you, but when I get my eyes off of my problems, being a Chrsitain is easy. It’s easy to fellowship with the Lord, because He’s my best friend, He always wants to listen, and He always cares. It’s easy to look back and testify that He’s a great God, because I’ve seen him work in the most hopeless situations.
In this passage, Moses is telling the children of Israel to do some pretty easy things, in comparison to what God has already done for them, and is going to do. They were slaves in Egypt under Pharaoh, and God heard their cry. He led them out of Egypt, and promised a land “that flowed with milk and honey”, which was Canaan. God wanted to bless his children, and Moses reminded them of some things they should do upon enjoying this Promised Land. In application to our life today, these same instructions seem pretty easy, but it’s the simple things that we often completely overlook. Don’t get overwhelmed each morning with all of life, remember there are some sweet and simple purposes in each day. Stay faithful to them, and God will do the rest.
- The Great Commandment is to love the Lord with all you’ve got, (verses 4 and 5) if we don’t have that down, everything is wrong. But, if this area is where it should be, we will be seeking to do things that please the Lord, because we are constantly in communion and communication with Him. This is one of our purposes each day, to have fellowship with the Lord. He’s our best friend, and he wants to hear from us, and not just once a day. Be sure to show up.
- “Beware lest thou forget”.. The children of Israel are cautioned not to forget where they came from when they enter that blessed Promised Land. I know where I’ve come from. I didn’t grow up in church. I got saved when I was 17, and past mistakes and hurt have brought quite some baggage. But, I wouldn’t trade it for the world. God has worked miracles in my life, He’s pulled me from some dark and low places, and I’ve seen his hand in it all. Don’t forget. Don’t grow discontent. That is the main tool the devil uses. Bring every thought into captivity, and line it up with God’s word. If it’s not pure or Holy, TRASH IT. Fix your mind on the things of God, and don’t forget His goodness.
- Lastly, Moses challenges them to tell their children. To tell the younger generation of all the Lord has done. Where they’ve come from, and why they do what they do. Tell everyone where you’ve come from, and how the Lord changed your life. Be a witness, to the younger generation, and to all people.
Don’t forget these “easy” things, for they are some of the most important things.
“And it shall be our righteousness, if we observe to do all these commandments before the LORD our God, as he hath commanded us.” (Deuteronomy 6:25)
Posted in Devotions by Alexia Morales with 5 comments.
Listen to this morning’s Scripture song – SSPsalm 92:1 – 4
Read the “0302 Evening and Morning” devotion for today, by the late Charles Haddon Spurgeon.
“But the LORD was wroth with me for your sakes, and would not hear me: and the LORD said unto me, Let it suffice thee; speak no more unto me of this matter.” – (Deuteronomy 3:26)
“For this thing I besought the Lord thrice, that it might depart from me. And he said unto me, My grace is sufficient for thee: for my strength is made perfect in weakness. Most gladly therefore will I rather glory in my infirmities, that the power of Christ may rest upon me.” – (2 Corinthians 12:8-9)
When we were kids, we used to drive our parents crazy asking for things. We would keep asking over and over again until they finally acquiesced to our request, or until they got angry and said, “enough is enough – not another word!” In our passage today we have Moses asking the Lord to change His mind about letting him enter into the land. Moses had been leading the nation for over 40 years, delivering them up to the border of the Promised Land. He had put up with all of their problems and complaints. You would think that God would have cut Moses some slack, and let him see what he had been working toward for a good portion of his life. But God had already told Moses “no”. God is not like us, either: when He says “no” He means no. God told Moses, “Let it suffice thee; speak no more unto me of this matter.” He basically told Moses to quit asking. He wanted Moses to be content with God’s will, whether or not it seemed fair.
Paul had a similar situation in the New Testament. He had a thorn in the flesh that He wanted God to take away from him. He asked God three times to remove it. God finally told Paul to stop asking. He wanted Paul to be content with the thorn, which for some reason was the will of God. He told Him that He would give him grace to go with the thorn, and that He should be content with that because it is sufficient.
I think it is just human nature for us to keep asking for things. By the way, there is nothing wrong with asking, and God even wants us to keep asking over and over again for the same thing. But eventually there will come a point when He will answer. He will either grant you the desire, or He will tell you “no”. When He tells you “no”, quit asking; and then be content with His will coupled with His grace. If you really needed what you were asking for, he would have given it to you. Be satisfied with what you do get, and know that God knows what is best. Perhaps someday we will understand a little better why God answered the way He did, but for now, just trust Him.
Posted in Thoughts from Deuteronomy by Phil Erickson with 3 comments.
Listen to this morning’s Scripture song – Psalm 92:1 – 4
Read the “0301 Evening and Morning” devotion for today, by the late Charles Haddon Spurgeon.
“And the king was sorry: nevertheless for the oath’s sake, and them which sat with him at meat, he commanded it to be given her. And he sent, and beheaded John in the prison. … When Jesus heard of it, he departed thence by ship into a desert place apart: and when the people had heard thereof, they followed him on foot out of the cities.” (Matthew 14:9-10, 13)
Read all of Matthew 14:1-21
We are going to be looking into the life of Jesus and how even in a time of brokenness in his life, he was still able to greatly be used of God. Before we look at how God used Jesus, we are going to look at what made Jesus broken. We see that John the Baptist said something Herod didn’t like, and Herod put him in prison and some things eventually led to Herod beheading John the Baptist. The disciples found about the death of him and went and told Jesus. The Bible says in verse 13, “When Jesus heard of it, he departed thence by a ship into a desert place apart:”. In my opinion, I think Jesus was very upset and went to be alone to pray to God.
- John the Baptist was Family of Jesus – (Luke 1-2)
- mothers were cousins
- similar age
- both births prophesied by angels
- John the Baptist was a Friend of Jesus –
- they respected each other – Matthew 11:11 – “Verily I say unto you, Among them that are born of women there hath not risen a greater than John the Baptist.”
- they shared spiritual moments together (baptism) – Matthew 3:13-17
- John the Baptist was the Forerunner of Jesus –
- Mark 1:2-4 – “As it is written in the prophets, Behold, I send my messenger before thy face, which shall prepare thy way before thee. The voice of one crying in the wilderness, Prepare ye the way of the Lord, make his paths straight. John did baptize in the wilderness, and preach the remission of sins.”
I say all of that so we can realize the relationship between John the Baptist and Jesus. When Jesus found out this this man who meant much to him was put to death, he was upset! What he did next is what is so important. He got alone with God and that is what we need to do when we get bad news. Often times, running to God is the last resort but we should run to the one who has all of the answers and we should do it immediately. What is interesting is the fact that even though Jesus was broken and wanted time with God, there was still people who had a need. Verse 14 says, “And Jesus went forth, and saw a great multitude, and was moved with compassion towards them, and he healed their sick.” Next, we see the miracle of the feeding of the five thousand but let’s not forget that this event is taking place while Jesus was still broken. No doubt, this is a picture for us that God can greatly use us when we are broken but only if we run to God and get power from him. II Corinthians 12:9-10 – “And he said unto me, My grace is sufficient for thee: for my strength is made perfect in weakness. Most gladly therefore will I rather glory in my infirmities, that the power of Christ may rest upon me. Therefore I take pleasures in infirmities, in reproaches, in necessities, in persecutions, in distress for Christ’s sake: for when I am weak, then am I strong.”
So, in conclusion, let’s look at the 3 key points of this lesson so we can apply them in our lives –
- When we get bad news, we need to run to God!
- There are still people with needs even when we are broken.
- God can greatly use us when we are broken.
Posted in Devotions by Dawson Parker with 4 comments.
Listen to this morning’s Scripture song – Psalm 89
Read a previous post from this passage – “The City of Refuge”
Read the “Evening and Morning” devotion for today, by the late Charles Haddon Spurgeon.
“Command the children of Israel, that they give unto the Levites of the inheritance of their possession cities to dwell in; and ye shall give also unto the Levites suburbs for the cities round about them. And the cities shall they have to dwell in; and the suburbs of them shall be for their cattle, and for their goods, and for all their beasts.” – (Numbers 35:2-3)
When the children of Israel went in to possess the land that God had given them in Canaan, all of the tribes received a fair portion of the property. However, one tribe, Levi, was not given a section of the country as the other tribes were. Instead, God commanded the other eleven tribes to each give up portions of their territory to be used for cities for the tribe of Levi to live in. The entire congregation of Israel would be responsible for providing a place for the Levites to stay in. Remember, the tribe of Levi was made up of the priests, as well as the men that were responsible for transporting and serving in the tabernacle (and later the Temple). The Levites could not provide for their own families as the other tribes could, because they were busy serving in the ministry. Not only did the other tribes provide them with a place to stay, but they were also responsible to take care of their other material needs.
The same principle applies today. God’s people are responsible to do whatever they can in order to make sure that the people that minister to them are provided for. A preacher that has to work in a secular vocation will simply not be able to do as much for the Lord as one who does not. However, there is also a danger in some cases for preachers to get lazy when they are completely provided for, and when there is little accountibility. I personally know of a few full-time servants who accomplish little with the abundance of time they have available to them. I guess the bottom line to this thought is that the people in the church should do everything that they can do to meet the needs of the preacher and his family, but the preacher must also realize that even though he does not have a human boss watching over him, he must stay busy and work hard for the cause of Christ. And, because he is not in it for compensation (“not for filthy lucre” – 1 Peter 5:2), he must be willing to do whatever is needed in order to effectively minister to God’s flock whether he is paid or not. God will ultimately care for his needs anyway, regardless of whether or not the church can.
“Let the elders that rule well be counted worthy of double honour, especially they who labour in the word and doctrine. For the scripture saith, Thou shalt not muzzle the ox that treadeth out the corn. And, The labourer is worthy of his reward.” – (1 Timothy 5:17-18)
“If we have sown unto you spiritual things, is it a great thing if we shall reap your carnal things? … Do ye not know that they which minister about holy things live of the things of the temple? and they which wait at the altar are partakers with the altar? Even so hath the Lord ordained that they which preach the gospel should live of the gospel.” – (1 Corinthians 9:11, 13-14)
Posted in Thoughts from Numbers by Phil Erickson with 6 comments.
Read the “0227 Evening and Morning“ devotion for today, by the late Charles Haddon Spurgeon.
“And the LORD spake unto Moses in the plains of Moab by Jordan near Jericho, saying, Speak unto the children of Israel, and say unto them, When ye are passed over Jordan into the land of Canaan; Then ye shall drive out all the inhabitants of the land from before you, and destroy all their pictures, and destroy all their molten images, and quite pluck down all their high places: And ye shall dispossess the inhabitants of the land, and dwell therein: for I have given you the land to possess it. And ye shall divide the land by lot for an inheritance among your families: and to the more ye shall give the more inheritance, and to the fewer ye shall give the less inheritance:98 every man’s inheritance shall be in the place where his lot falleth; according to the tribes of your fathers ye shall inherit. But if ye will not drive out the inhabitants of the land from before you; then it shall come to pass, that those which ye let remain of them shall be pricks in your eyes, and thorns in your sides, and shall vex you in the land wherein ye dwell. Moreover it shall come to pass, that I shall do unto you, as I thought to do unto them.” (Numbers 33:50-56)
Good morning. The Lord gave marching orders to Israel for when they entered the land of Canaan. They were to drive out the inhabitants, destroy their pictures, their molten images, and pull down their high places. If Israel did not drive out the inhabitants, then those people would be pricks in their eyes, thorns in their sides, and would vex them. And, to top it all off, God would do to Israel as He planned to do to them. And we know what happened. Israel started worshiping false gods of the land, and did wicked things in the site of the Lord; things much worse than the inhabitants. God kept His promise and scattered Israel. Israel would not become a nation again till 1948.
When will someone come into the United States and be pricks in our eyes, thorns in our sides, and vex us? Many Christians today are being side-tracked into focusing on everything in the world except for Jesus and His Word…
“Therefore if any man be in Christ, he is a new creature: old things are passed away; behold, all things are become new.” (2Corinthians 5:17)
The old man shows it’s ugly face regularly in today’s society. What happened to the new creature? We should not be walking after the flesh, but after the Spirit. We’ve turned into zombies, the walking dead: the old man has come back to life. And those zombies are dragging around the old baggage that should have been cast by the wayside a long time ago. We have our marching orders…
“And that, knowing the time, that now it is high time to awake out of sleep: for now is our salvation nearer than when we believed. The night is far spent, the day is at hand: let us therefore cast off the works of darkness, and let us put on the armour of light. Let us walk honestly, as in the day; not in rioting and drunkenness, not in chambering and wantonness, not in strife and envying. But put ye on the Lord Jesus Christ, and make not provision for the flesh, to fulfil the lusts thereof.” (Romans 13:11-14)
“This I say then, Walk in the Spirit, and ye shall not fulfil the lust of the flesh.” (Galatians 5:16)
Posted in Devotions by Pastor Ted Stahl with 1 comment.
Listen to this morning’s Scripture Song – Isaiah 51:11
Read the “0226 Evening and Morning“ devotion for today, by the late Charles Haddon Spurgeon.
If a man vow a vow unto the LORD, or swear an oath to bind his soul with a bond; he shall not break his word, he shall do according to all that proceedeth out of his mouth. (Numbers 30:2)
Reading Numbers 30 and 31 reminded me of two things to be grateful for – God’s promises and His grace. A vow is defined as a solemn promise, oath or pledge. How many times have I made a promise to the Lord or my loved ones and friends, only to break that promise? I’m grateful that the Lord always keeps His vows to us and that He never changes. He gives us a fresh start every day and no matter how many times we fail Him, we have His promise that He will never leave us nor forsake us. He promises us peace when we keep our minds on Him and that He will always supply our needs. I’m thankful that my behavior and actions do not determine my eternal standing, because of His promise of salvation by faith alone. He promises blessings for walking according to His Word – there is freedom in obedience.
The world isn’t looking for you or me – they are looking for Jesus. With His help, may we be the light for them and give them a glimpse of the best life there is – the abundant Christian life. With His help, may we keep our promises, show mercy when we want to show anger, and exude the joy of a personal relationship with Him.
It is of the Lord’s mercies that we are not consumed, because his compassions fail not. They are new every morning: great is thy faithfulness. (Lamentations 3:22 – 23)
Posted in Devotions by Dawn Schnepp with 4 comments.